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初中英语:定语从句易错易混点

2018-04-28 16:39:14 来源:优胜教育网整理 作者:本站编辑

初中英语:定语从句易错易混点

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  定语从句易错易混点


  易错点一:关系代词和关系副词的混用。例1.I’ll never forget the days when I spent in New York with you.例2.I’ll never forget the days which I visited New York with you.析:例1中的when应改为which或that;例2中的which应改为when.区分关系代词和关系副词的关键是看它们在定语从句中所充当的成分。如果定语从句中缺少主语、宾语,就应考虑使用关系代词,如例1;若定语从句中缺少状语,就应考虑使用关系副词,如例2.


  易错点二:固定句式出差错。例3.Mary is so lovely a girl as everybody loves her.例4.Mary is so lovely a girl that everybody loves.析:例3中的as应改为that;例4中的that应改为as.so…as或so…that为固定句式,前者为as引导的定语从句,as在定语从句中作宾语或主语,如例4;后者为that引导的结果状语从句,该从句的成分是完整的,不缺少主语或宾语,如例3.类似的固定句式还有the same…as(that),such…as,as…as等。


  易错点三:主谓不一致。例5.Tom is one of the students who likes swimming.例6.Tom is the only one of the students who like swimming.析:例5中的likes应改为like;例6中的like应改为likes.在“one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,定语从句的先行词是复数名词,故谓语动词要用复数形式,如例5;在“the(only)one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,先行词是one,而不是复数名词,故谓语动词要用单数形式,如例6.


  易错点四:与强调句型及其他句型的混合。例7.Was it in the shop that you bought the recorder that you lost your pen?例8.You’d better make a mark at where you have any questions.析:例7中第一个that应改为where;例8中应去掉at.例7为带有定语从句的强调句,you bought the recorder为定语从句,其引导词应用where,后面第二个that才是强调句中的that,此句可还原为:You lost your pen in the shop where you bought the recorder.例8为where引导的地点状语从句。


  易错点五:对先行词概念不明确。例9.It this library that you visited yesterday?例10.Is this the library where you visited yesterday?析:例9中应在library后加the one;例10中的where应去掉或改为that或which.在例9中,this library是主语,is是谓语,that引导的是定语从句,但没有先行词,故应补加先行词;在例10中,the library是先行词,定语从句缺少宾语,故应用that或which来引导,当然也可以省略。


  易错点六:特殊名词作先行词时关系词的选取错误。例11.I don’t like the way which you speak to her.例12.I don’t care for pay.I just want to get a job that I can be greatly valued.析:例11中应在which前加in或将which改为that或去掉;例12中的that应改为where或in which.在定语从句中,有些特殊名词作先行词时其关系词的选取有一定的特殊性,如way作先行词时,其引导词可用that或in which或省略,如例11;与way相似的还有job,situation,point,case等作先行词时,关系词常用where或in which,如例12.


  易错点七:忽略as和which引导非限定性定语从句的区别。例13.He failed in the exam again,which was expected.例14.He failed in the exam again,as was not what he had expected.析:例13中的which应改为as;例14中的as应改为which.as和which虽然都可引导非限制性定语从句,但仍有以下三点区别:(1)as有“正如;就像”之意,而which没有;(2)as引导的非限制性定语从句可置于句首、句中或句末,而which只能置于句末;(3)如果非限制性定语从句是否定句时,只能用which引导。


  易错点八:忽略that和which引导限制性定语从句的区别。例15.This is the most exciting football game which I have ever seen.例16.Here are the samples that—had I thought of it—you could have taken with you yesterday.析:例15中的which应改为that;例16中的that应改为which.当先行词被最高级、序数词修饰或先行词本身是不定代词时,只能用what来引导定语从句,如例15;当关系词后面有插入成分时,只能用which来引导定语从句,如例16.


  易错点九:介词前置出差错。例17.The two things with which Marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms.例18.Tell him all the things to which he should pay attention.析:例17中的with应改为about或of;例18中应把to移到attention的后面。在定语从句中前置的介词必须和后面的动词或形容词构成固定搭配,如例17;但并不是所有的固定搭配中的介词都可前置,如例18.


  易错点十:which和whose的意义不明确。例19.The book which cover is broken is of great help to all of us.例20.The book of whose cover is broken is of great help to all of us.析:例19中的which应改为whose;例20中的whose应改为which.在定语从句中,关系代词which不能在定语从句中作定语,但whose可作定语,“whose+n”相当于“the+n+of which”或“of which+the+n”。


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